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Although not geographically part of the archipelago of the British Islespolitically and culturally the islands are generally accepted as such. The Channel Islands are the last remnants of the medieval Duchy of Normandy that held sway in both France and England. The islands remained loyal to the English crown after the return of Normandy to France in and have enjoyed self-government since.

Although Jersey was part of the Roman world, there is a lack of evidence to give a better understanding of the island during the Gallo-Roman and early Middle Ages. Andium however is also mentioned on the list and this name is very often attributed to Jersey.

Therefore, it is possible another island, such as the Minquiers were in fact Caesarea and Jersey Andium. The name is claimed to be the source of the modern name Jersey, -ey being a Norse ification of an island, and Jer- possibly being a contraction of Caesar, similar to Cherbourg, therefore the island meaning Caesar's island. Lenuri Lenur Islands [4] : 4.

This word also gives name to various places called Etacquerel. The earliest evidence of human activity in Jersey dates to aboutyears ago in the Middle Paleolithic before Jersey became an island when bands of Neanderthal nomadic hunters used the caves at La Cotte de St Brelade as a base for hunting mammoth and woolly rhinoceros. Due to rising sea levels, Jersey has been an island for approximately 6, years. The geology of the Channel Islands, has its origins in the Hercynian mountain building period, which also s for the hills of Brittany and the moors of Devon and Cornwall.

Evidence of Ice Age period engravings dating from at least 12, BC has been found, [8] [9] showing occupation by Homo sapiens. Evidence also exists of settled communities in the Neolithic period, which is marked by the building of the ritual burial sites known as dolmens.

Thesize, and visible locations of these megalithic monuments especially La Hougue Bie have suggested that social organisation over a wide area, including surrounding coasts, was required for the construction. Archaeological evidence also shows that trading links with Brittany and the south coast of England existed during this time. Evidence of occupation and wealth has been discovered in the form of hoards.

Induring construction of a house in Saint Helier, a gram gold torc of Irish origin was unearthed. A Bronze Age hoard consisting of implements, mostly spears and swords, was discovered in Saint Lawrence in — probably a smith's stock. In Junetwo metal detectorists announced that they had uncovered what could be Europe's largest hoard of Iron Age Celtic coins70, late Iron Age and Roman coins.

The hoard is thought to have belonged to a Curiosolitae tribe fleeing Julius Caesar 's armies around 50 to 60 BC. Although there is no evidence of a Roman occupation of Jersey, historians consider that it is entirely feasible it was occupied by the Romans. Various Roman archeological artefacts have been found on the island, such as coins discovered on the north coast at Ile Agois.

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There are several sites attributed to the Romans on the island, such as Caesar's fort at Mont Orgeuil. Roman influence has been found, in particular at Les Landesthe coastal headland site at Le Pinaclewhere remains of a primitive structure are attributed to Gallo-Roman temple worship fanum. When Augustus Caesar divided Gaul into four provinces, Jersey was part of the province headquartered at Lyons.

During the migration of the Britons from Britain to Brittany c. There are numerous references to the habitation of Jersey by Breton people. This likely brought Christianity to the island. Tradition has it that Saint Helier from Tongeren in modern-day Belgium first brought Christianity to the island in the 6th century; part of the walls of the Fishermen's Chapel dates from this period and Charlemagne sent his emissary to the island at that time called Angiaalso spelt Agna [15] in A chapel built around now forms part of the nave of the Parish Church of St Clement.

Fromthe Normans began a piratical war on the western coast of France, and the islands were exposed to their incursions.

During these conquests was the life of Helierthe patron saint of Jersey. He was a hermit and holy man who lived a life of solitude at the Hermitage on Elizabeth Castleestablished by at least Being part of Neustria — a diminution of West-France — Jersey was originally part of the Kingdom of France, and not linked to the British Crown as today. The Channel Islands remained politically linked to Brittany untilwhen William LongswordDuke of Normandy seized the Cotentin and the islands and added them to his domain.

The island, along with the rest of Normandy, was distinct from the Crown of France, which only had limited rights in the province. During Norman rule, the island likely redeveloped after the devastation brought by the Vikings and developed agriculture.

This period saw the establishment of various fiefdomssuch as the de Carterets, and the establishment of feudal rule in Jersey. Norman cultural influence is evident in the island is likely an indicator of large Norman migration to the island. Norman law is still the basis of Jersey law although it now has large influence from English common law.

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According to the Rolls of the Norman Exchequer, in Jersey was divided for administrative purposes into three ministeria: [17] de Gorroicde Groceio and de Crapoudoit possibly containing hill parishes each. It was likely set in place due to the tithe system under Charlemagne, where each property must contribute to the church, so each property would have had to be established within a parish.

The parish system is much more important in Jersey than in England or post-Napoleon France. The claim was based upon his position as feudal overlord of the Duke of Normandy. The King of England gave up claim to mainland Normandy and therefore the Channel Islands were split from the rest of Normandy.

The Channel Islands were never absorbed into the Kingdom of England and the island has had self-government since. The Channel Islands ceased to be a peaceful backwater, now being located on the edge of the territory of the King of England, and became a potential flashpoint on the international stage between England and France. Therefore, the Warden, de Suligny, constructed a castle at Gorey, known as Mont Orgueilto serve as a royal fortress and military base.

This was needed as the Island had few defences and had ly been suppressed by a fleet commanded by a French exile, Eustace the Monk working with the English King until in he changed sides and raided the Channel Islands on behalf of the French King. The administration of the island was handled by an insular government.

The King appointed a Warden later "Capitain" or "Governor", now the Lieutenant-Governor of Jerseya position largely occupied with the defence of the island. Despite the end to Norman rule, the churches of the island were permitted to continue to be under the Diocese of Coutances for another years to appease islanders, however at times of war the liberties of the clergy were often restricted.

The existing Norman customs and laws were allowed to continue and there was no attempt to introduce English law. The formerly split administrative system was replaced with a centralised legal system, of which the head was the King of England lonely than the Duke of Normandy. These women have different meanings and duties to those in England. The role of the jurats when the King's court was mobile would have been preparatory work for the visit of the Justices in Eyre. It is unknown for how long the position of the jurats has existed, with some claiming the position dates to time immemorial.

After the cessation of the visits of the Justices in Eyre and with the frequent channel of the Wardenthe Bailiff and jurats took on a much wider role, from jury to justice. Due to the island's strategic importance to the English island, the islanders were able to negotiate, over a of centuries, the right to retain privileges and improve on certain benefits, such as trade chapels, from the King.

Inthe Privy Council, which had recently given a seat to Calais, intended to give two seats in Parliament to Jersey. Seymour, the Lieutenant-Governor of the Island, wrote to the Jurats, instructing them to send two Burgesses for the isle. However, no further steps seemed to have been taken since the letter did not arrive in front of the States Assembly until the day the elected women were required to arrive in London. Under the wardenships of Philippe d'Aubigny—the island was attacked by Eustace the Monka pirate, while the warden was fighting for the King in the Barons' war. An inquest was held into the loyalty of the Jersey landowners, and as a result only the de Carterets remained of the important Norman families.

The old aristocracy gave way to a new one, with landowners drawn from royal officials, who soon came to think of themselves as islanders rather than Englishmen. This saw the island establishment of the feudal system in Jersey, with fiefs headed by Seigneurs. During the Hundred Years' Warthe island was attacked many times [19] resulting in the chapel creation of the Island Militia inwhich was compulsory for the next years for all men of military age. In Marcha French force landed on Jersey, intent on capturing the island.

Inthe French returned, allegedly with 8, men in 17 Genoese galleys and 35 French ships. Again, they failed to take the castle and, after causing damage, withdrew. It was when the Black Death reached the Island, ravaging the population. The change in England to a written language in "English" was not taken up in Jersey, where Norman-French continued until the 20th-century.

His troops succeeded in breaching the outer defences, forcing the garrison back to the keep. The garrison came to an agreement that they would surrender if not relieved by Michaelmas and du Guesclin sailed back to Brittany, leaving a small force to carry on the siege. An English relief fleet arrived in time. The rise of Joan of Arc inspired France to evict the English from mainland France, with the exception of Calais, putting Jersey back in the front line.

It may well be during this occupation that the island saw the establishment of the States. Comte Maulevrier, who had lead the invasion of the island, ordered the holding of an Assize in the island. Maulevrier confirmed the place of existing institutions, however created the requirement for Jurats to be chosen by Bailiffs, Jurats, Rectors and Constables.

InKing Henry VII obtained a Papal bull to transfer the islands from the Bishop of Coutcances to Salisbury and later to Winchesteralthough for nearly 50 years after, due to the proximity of the isles to Coutances, the Bishop continued Hill act as the de facto bishop of the islands. Inthere was an outbreak of plague on the island, and the Lieutenant Governor, Robert Raymond, ordered the closure of all channels, fairs and public assemblies. During the 16th century, ideas of the reformation of the church coupled with the split with the Catholic Faith by Henry VIII of Englandresulted in the islanders adopting the Protestant religion, in the churches moved lonely the control of the Diocese of Winchester.

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However, Jersey did not have any death sentences issued for Catholicism, due to the island being kept out of the limelight by its Governor Poulet. The island did not become Catholic, with numerous anti-Papists still in position. This meant that life became very austere: laws were strictly enforced, punishment for wrong doers was severe, but education was improved - a school was started in every parish and support was given for Jersey boys to attend Oxford.

Each elder knew every family within his vigntaine, 'whether they have household prayers morning and evening, say grace after meals and live in peace and concord. The island militia was reorganised on a parish basis and each parish had two cannon which were usually housed in the church - one of the St Peter cannon can still be seen at the bottom of Beaumont Hill.

During the Elizabethan Era, Europeans began to explore and establish colonies in the Americas. Jersey was a notable trading port, on the route linking the Netherlands to Spain and between England and France. A of locals were colonialists to Newfoundland from its discovery by Europeans in InSt Brelade's Church was allowed to hold Communion early, such that the travellers could communicate before sailing from St Aubin. Southampton was also an important port for the Jersey people, with a of them settling and taking important roles in the town.

One of the favourable trade deals with England was the ability to import wool England needing an export market but was at war with most of Europe.

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The name jersey being synonymous for a sweater, shows its importance. Peyton strongly disliked Presbyterianism, including Calvinism, and attempted to abolish the religion in Jersey. The king initially allowed the island's to continue under their present faith system. However, Calvinism was increasingly unpopular among islanders, which aided Peyton's caused.