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Full text of " Pausanias Description of Greece " See other formats Google This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project to make the world's books discoverable online. It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country.
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CAPF8, Ph. PAGB, Lm. After a mature I was requested by the Editors of the Loeb series to add a few notes, dates, maps, etc. Fiillv aware of the difficulties and dangers of the plan, I have nevertheless tried my best to choose from a vast quantity of material just those scraps of informa- tion which an Englisli reader would need most, A few of the notes are printed at the side and foot of the ; most of them, together with the maps and plans, are reserved for the Index, which it is huped to make a " compauiun " to Pausanias.
The transliteration of Greek names has been a matter of difficulty. The only way to avoid incon- sistencies is to transliterate letter for letter without attempting either to Latinize or to Anghcize. A few of the most plausible conjectures, generally though not always adopted by Spiro, have been ased to their authors in footnotes. In my translation I have not distinguished be- tween "Medes" and "Persians," or "Ilium" and "Troy," It is rather deceptive to an English reader to do BO, and the Greek scholar can easily tell from the original which word in each case was used by Pausanias.
I have to acknowledge much kind help. Especially am I indebted to my friend Mr, A. Spratt, Fellow of St. Catharine's College, for his careful reading of the proofs. Professor Ridgeway and my colleague, Mr. B, Appleton, have given invaluable criticism and advice.
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In book v, xiii. In g 2 he says that two hundred and seventeen 's had passed since Corinth was repeopled.
Now ith was restored in 44 b. Again, in vn.
These emperors Pausanias knows as "the firet Antonine" and "the second Antonine," and he mentions a war of the latter against the Germans and Sauromntae. Without being a scientific critic, Pausani can reject the improbable or relate it with a c lector. He is transparently honest, with no ai grind and no object to be gained by intentiond inaccuracy. His book exhibits no enth either of love or of hate, but throughout it there i manifest a quiet admiration for the beauties ani glories of Greece.
The Stvlk of Pausanias The style of Pausanias is simple and unpretentious. The matter of the work does not lend itself to literary embellishment, and, witii two exceptions, the narrative unfolds itself plain and unadorned. The first exception is that Pausanias, like other Hellenistic writers, often indulgea in curiously ver- bose and tortuous expressions to represent very simple ideas ; the second is his fondness for trans- positions of words, which are sometimes so violent as ta throw doubt upon the sense.
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The translator is sometimes troubled by what appears to be carelessness in the use of prepositions. But im with the dative may have, among others, the following meanings : — 1 In addition to ; 2 Next to, close to, nt, near ; 3 On the top of; 4 In the case of. Now ill single descriptions the use of pre- positions with local meanings sliould be very strict and precise, and it is rather unfortunate that Pau- sanias employs this construction of ijri so frequently, as the translator is often uncertain which meaning to thoose, and an error may make a serious change in the sense of a passage.
Another ambiguity, occurring several times in Pausauias, is of lessas it dues not seriously alfect the sense, but it may be of some interest to grammarians. Pausanias is fond of using a past tense when in many cases the iiatuial tense in English is the present. The reason is sometimes because the writer is thinking of the time when he visited a locality, or investigated a problem, some- times because he places himself in the position of his readers. Occasionally the past tense appears to of the "momentary" type.
The Tour The work of Pausanias Yovoti far from being a plete description of ancient Greece. Many poin whicli a modern reader would be interested i either passed over altogether or else dismissed I the fewest possible words.
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Geological feature scenery, the genernl appearance of cities and village the state of agriculture and of trade, the powt efficiency of the country — all these things, whit nowadays are objects of concern to an author, occuf a very small part of the narrative of Pausanias.
Greeks, for example, and indeed ancient people generally, appreciated scenery less than we do.
B the chief reason for the peculiar character of t Tour is that Pausanias wrote for a limited publit which took little interest in such matters as i dustrial and economic questions. This dryness of the narrative, this enumeration of sights irithaut adequate description, indicates that Pausanias meant his work to be a guide-book to accompany the tourist on his travels and to show him what to look for ; he had no intention of giving information which could be obtained by a glance on the spot.
We notice moreover that, lik the tourist of modern days, he devotes his attention to superficial details rather than to truly i quahties. Sometimes, particularly when. Peculiarities of ritual arq regularly given when they might strike the visitor a odd. The form of an anoiei book and tho difficulties of refBrenca in ancient tiuiea accoui for many artistic defects in the old writers. To us these names are dull enough, but lo Greek ears tiiey came fraught with pleasing and romantic associations derived from the stories of childhood, from the national poetry and sagas, and from the hymns sung Yovoti religious festivals.
Pausanias appears to have gathered most of his topographical knowledge from his own travels, hut lie doubtless mature in places the works of his prede- cessors, while his historical information is fairly re- liable, being generally derived from good si SuMMAav OF Books I and II The regions described in the first two books of Pausaojas are, roughly, Attica, Megaris, Corinth and Argolis.
The way in which Pausanias describes a place can he seen from an analysis of the first five chapters of the second book. Pausanias thet on to the Sicyonians and their city. He does not profess to give an exhaustive. Indeed, in the eyes of a Greek, everything that he could not ex- plain, everything that puzsled or awed him, was of divine origin, and in those early and pre-scientilic davs the realm of the single was a large one.
Greek religion is of disputed origin, or origins, but it is certainly a coin] lex. Three ihein, at lenst, must be briefly noticed.
First there is ancestor worship, the payment of Iviiic honours to "heroes. Usually the sacrifice was not shm'ed in by the wor- shippers, but was all sacred to the hero. Early in Greek history, probably during the ciglith and seventh centuries h.
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Orphism taught that man was a creature of sin and defilement, that the body was the prison of the soul; and that by ceremonial purifi- cation the soul could win a more blessed existence in the world to come. This movement found con- crete expression in the "mysteries," initiation in which was sought by those who were depressed by ft consciousness of sin or by the awful facts of life and death. Mysteries were associated with the wor- ship of the dead and with various deities,' but especially with Demeter and her worship at Eleusis. The ritual, if we may judge from the little we know about it,' was trivial and absui'd, but there can be no doubt that it did much to satisfy the emotional side of the religious instincts of the Greeks, Its modern analogue is perhaps the Salvation Army.
The instinct whii created the fairies, brownies, elves and raermaii of our own legends pave to the Greeks that woi derful hierarchy,' with the nymphs and mus at one end and Zeus, the king of the gods, at t other.
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Round their names there gradually grew matchless mythology, which was at once the insjiir tion and the theme of the best Greek art. Anthropoma phism, with all its defects,' provides the worshippt with a deity that he can understand, to whom 1 pure and spiritunl. A conception like that of Athena, once thoroughly established, grew; poets and sculptors purified and enriched it, and the religious consciousness of the worshipper, deepening ever from age to age, gave to it a fiiller and nobler ificance.
It was to art that religion owed most ', indeed, art exerted that purifying influence which is exerted on m.